The survey is part of the Welfare Monitoring Survey(WMS) series, initiated in the early 1990s to monitor the possible socio-economic effects of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Kenyan.
Since its inception in the early 1990s, the Welfare Monitoring Survey has played a crucial role as a tool for guiding policy decisions, and particularly those that are aimed at welfare improvements. Previous welfare monitoring surveys, for example, have shown that nearly half of the Kenyan population is. living in Absolute Poverty, and that poverty in general is on the increase. This revelation has in the recent past led to a number of Government measures to curb the deterioration in welfare.
The latest poverty estimates date back to the second Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMSII) of 1994, in which rural poverty was estimated at 46% and urban poverty at 29%. Since current information on the nature of poverty is essential for designing more poverty-sensitive strategies, the purpose of this report is to update 1994 poverty levels through the findings of the third Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMSIII), carried out between March and May 1997.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Both at the Husehold and Individual levels
Version 02- This follows an upgrade of Version 01 of october 2008
The scope of WMSIII includes:
- Household demographics
- Child information
- Amenities (Access, use and satisfaction to/with health services)
- Household consumption and expenditure
-Computed variables from consumption and expenditure
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents)
Producers and sponsors
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2030
Government of Kenya
Survey Personnel, Transport
The selection probabilities were based on a three-stage sampling scheme, as described below:
First Stage -EA selection within the district
Second Stage -Cluster selection
Third Stage -Household selection
Sample weights were calculated for each of the data file based on the NASSEP 3 Sampling Frame.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Interviewing was conducted by CBS field stafff in all the districts each field staff was allocated at least three clusters. Each district statistical officer supervised the data collection they were complemented by a team of cordinators from CBS headquaters
Data Collection Notes
Only 2.3 percent of the households were not covered due to operational and logistical constraints arising from desertion, insecurity or inaccessibility for lack of adequate transport.
Household refusals were minimal, accounting for only 0.1 percent of the cases.
All households found to have no responsible member to provide the required information were treated as non-responding households after three call-backs.
Central Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning and national Development
Two sets of questionnaires were administered during the survey at different intervals. Phase one covered the core module; phase two administered Agriculture and non-agricultural income modules. The first set of questionnaires, referred to as the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ), had two sections as indicated below:
a) Core Welfare Indicators
Section I Demographic and Social Amenities
Household Roster, covering demographics of household members,
Health and family insurance, covering employment of members aged 5 years and above.
Part II - Child roster (anthropometry).
Part III - Household amenities.
Part IV - Household assets
Section II Household Expenditure Module
(b) Agriculture Questionnaire and Non Agricultural Income
The second set of questionnaires covered agriculture activities for rural households and non-agricultural income for both rural and urban households. The module consisted of six parts, as outlined below:
Farming and agricultural services
Holding characteristics, crops and livestock production Non-agricultural income from informal sector activities Farm labour
General farm productivity constraints
Changes in agricultural production and food consumption.
Apart from the questionnaires administered during the survey, an additional module on prevailing rurallurban retail prices of essential commodities was also implemented. Supervisory duties during data collection were carried out by a team of 40 professionals drawn from Ministry headquarters, with support from respective district statistical officers. As previously mentioned, only non-ASAL districts were covered during the survey.
Data editing for the survey took place at the following stages :
- Office editing and coding before the scanning of the questions and Structure checking and completeness
For tabulation and analysis: SPSS software was used.
"Kenya National Bureau of Statistic, Welfare Monitoring Survey 3, 1997"
Disclaimer and copyrights
KNBS provides these data to external users without any warranty or responsibility implied. KNBS accepts no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any actions resulting from the use of these data.
(c) 2012, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
DDI Document ID
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning, National development and Vision 2030
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 follows an update of version 01 of October 2008.