Assessing the Educational Impact of Malaria Prevention in Kenyan Schools: Baseline Surveys 2010
Impact Evaluation Study [ie/ies]
The Government of Kenya is interested in understanding how malaria prevention and treatment can improve the education of schoolchildren when it is combined with effective teaching. This project examines the impact of school-based malaria intermittent screening and treatment and enhanced literacy training/support for teachers on children's health and educational outcomes. One hundred and one government primary schools in Kwale and Msambweni districts were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: some schools have been tested and treated for malaria; some schools have had extra support for teachers of English and Swahili; some schools have been both tested for malaria and received extra teacher support; and other schools have gotten neither of the two programs.
In January-February 2010, children from classes 1 and 5 were randomly selected within each school and have been followed up for two years. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis are used to investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The endline survey is to be completed by December 2011.
Documented here are the following baseline surveys and assessments completed in 2009-2010:
1) Parents/guardians survey;
2) Schools survey;
3) Baseline health assessment in children.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Individuals, households, schools
V01- Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution
The scope of the study includes:
- HOUSEHOLD: languages spoken at home, reading ability, schooling, involvement in children's school, family composition, household construction, asset ownership, mosquito net ownership and use.
- SCHOOL: water and sanitation facilities, health activities and educational materials, elevation of school in meters.
- CHILDREN: consent collected, height, weight, temperature, anemia, bodymass index, hemoglobin concentration, clinical malaria.
Kwale and Msambweni Districts
The survey cover children in grades 1 and 5 in government schools in Kwale and Msambweni Districts, their parents/guardians, head teaches of schools in above mentioned districts.
Producers and sponsors
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie)
School selection was made from the 197 Government primary schools in Kwale and Msambweni Districts. In Kwale District, a separate study is evaluating the impact of an alternative literacy intervention in two of the four zones; therefore only 20 schools in this district were included in our study allowing the two interventions to proceed without leakage. In Msambweni District, 81 of 112 schools were selected; schools 70 km or further away from the project office, were excluded due to logistical constraints.
The randomisation of the 101 schools into the four experimental groups was conducted in two stages, each involving public randomisation ceremonies:
Stage 1 - Literacy intervention randomisation
a) Clusters of schools (groups of between 3-6 schools that meet and share information) were randomised either to receive the literacy intervention or to serve as a control schools.
b) This randomisation was stratified by (i) cluster size, to ensure equal numbers of schools in the experimental groups; and (ii) average primary school leaving exam scores across the cluster, to balance the two groups for school achievement.
c) District officials and representatives from all 26 school clusters were invited to a meeting. Volunteers were asked to randomly draw envelopes each containing a cluster name from 10 pre-stratified ballot boxes and to sequentially place the envelopes in group A and group B.
Stage 2 - Health intervention randomisation
a) The health intervention was randomly allocated amongst the 51 schools assigned to the literacy intervention and the 50 schools allocated to serve as control schools during the first randomisation.
b) Schools were stratified by average primary school leaving exam scores into 5 quintiles and by literacy intervention group, producing 10 strata overall.
c) Representatives from the 101 schools and local communities were invited to this randomisation ceremony. Volunteers were asked to draw envelopes from the 10 pre-stratified ballot boxes and sequentially place the envelopes in group 1 and group 2.
During January and February 2010, schools were visited and a census of all children in classes 1 and 5 was conducted, including children absent on the day of visit. This census served as a basis for making a random selection of 25 children with consent from class 1 and 30 children with consent from class 5. Fewer children were selected from class 1 because of the extra educational assessments undertaken with these children and the practical feasibility of conducting the tests in a single day. Some of the classes were small, and this meant that in these classes all children with consent were recruited.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Prior to any data collection the school meetings were held with the parents and guardians of the children to explain the study and to give them a chance to ask questions. They then were given the opportunity to provide informed consent for their children to take part in the study. The information sheet, malaria frequently asked questions (FAQ) sheet, consent form and standard operating procedure (SOP) for the consent process can be found under technical documents.
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were used for the activities carried out in the study and these are provided under technical documents.
All children participating in the study have been tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) three time a year. Children (with or without malaria symptoms) with a positive test are treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ATCs). Testing and treatment are administered by district health workers.
Kenya Medical Research Institute
The following questionnaires and forms are available:
1) School Questionnaire
The school questionnaire is administered to the head teachers of each school during the initial school selection; if absent, the deputy head was interviewed. Information is collected on the characteristics of the school such as the number of boys and girls enrolled in each class, examination results in English, mathematics and Kiswahili, school features such as number of desks and teachers, facilities available such as latrines and the presence of school health activities and materials. Locations of each school were mapped using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (eTrex Garmin Ltd., Olathe, KS).
2) Parent questionnaire for class 1 students
The parent questionnaire for class 1 students assesses the educational and socio-economic environment of the children's households. This is administered to the parent or guardian at the time of consent. Questions relate to their own reading ability, schooling, and involvement in their children's school, as well as questions on family composition, household construction, asset ownership and mosquito net ownership and use.
3) Parent questionnaire for class 5 students
The parent questionnaire for class 5 students assesses the educational and socio-economic environment of the children's households. This is administered to the parent or guardian at the time of consent. The section on education environment is reduced as the literacy intervention was focused on the class 1 children, so a less extensive knowledge of attitudes to education was required for parents of class 5 children. Questions relate to their schooling level achieved, as well as questions on family composition, household construction, asset ownership, and mosquito net ownership and use.
4) Nurse survey form for classes 1 and 5
This is for use by the nurse when conducting the baseline health assessments in the children. The child ID, child name, and parent name of the randomly selected children are already entered on the form before arrival at the school. The nurse records the attendance of each child, completing the reasons using the codes at the bottom of the form. Height, weight and temperature of each child is recorded on the form. The child is also asked their age, which is recorded.
5) Health Technician survey form for classes 1 and 5
This is for use by the health technician when conducting the baseline health assessments in the children. The child ID, child name, and parent name of the randomly selected children are already entered on the form before arrival at the school. The technician notes whether the child is present, and then records the hemoglobin reading, whether or not a blood slide has been taken, and the timing and result of the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). This form is for assessment of children in the intervention schools where P falciparum infection is assessed.
The School Questionnaire was administered from October to November 2009, Parent Questionnaires - from January to February 2010, and Baseline Health Assessments took place in February-March 2010.
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Researchers take strict precautions to safeguard children's personal information throughout the study. All research records are stored securely in locked cabinets and password protected computers. Only a few people who are closely concerned with the research are able to view information from participants.
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator(s) (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Simon Brooker, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Matthew Jukes, Harvard University. Assessing the Educational Impact of Malaria Prevention in Kenyan Schools: Baseline Surveys (AEIMPBS) 2010, Ref. KEN_2010_AEIMPBS_v01_A. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.